A recent series of high-profile immunity, including two men unfairly convicted of the 1966 killing of Malcolm X, Muhammad Abdul Aziz and Khalil Islam, raises many questions.
The 83-year-old Aziz and the now-deceased Islam spent a total of 42 years in prison and were exonerated in November. A few days later, Black Missouri ManKevin Strickland, who spent 43 years behind the bar for a triple murder he did not commit, was exonerated.
Shortly thereafter, Anthony Broadwater, a black man convicted of raping the acclaimed white writer Alice Sebold in 1982, was convicted. Broadwater spent more than 16 years in prison and was registered as a sex offender for another 23 years.
In all three cases, those who were falsely convicted were of color. The cluster of convictions represents an important step in admitting the deep systemic failure that led to the illegal conviction of men, but not enough to provide relief and closure, an assistant professor of public policy at Mills College. One Ashley Adams says.
“That’s a really disappointing part,” says Adams, who works to investigate African-American reparations. Northeastern University announced a merger earlier this year with a university that will establish Mills College at Northeastern University in July 2022.
Relief and closure are two of the three pillars of one approach to black reparations and help to formulate a debate about what justice would look like in such cases, Adams said. .. Not only are the lives of these men and their families heavily affected by injustice, but in the case of Aziz and Islam, there is our collective understanding of history, says Adams.
“We need some form of compensation or payment, and closure. It means closure. It won’t happen again because the conditions that caused the situation have been processed and dismantled in the first place,” says Adams. “So it’s also a cultural change that needs to happen.”
The conversation is now focused on what post-immunity justice looks like. Strickland does not receive financial or other assistance from Missouri. However, online fundraising campaigns have raised over $ 1 million to help him adapt to life outside prison. Over 20,000 donors have contributed to this effort. In the case of Broadwater, Sebald was pressured to recognize the role she might have played in perpetuating the unjust system. Public apology About the problem.
In the case of Aziz and Islam, the question is also whether justice is possible given how much time has passed, as an associate professor and deputy director of the Northeastern Citizenship and Restorative Justice Project. One Rose Zoltec Jack says. Zoltek-Jick says that spending more than a decade in prison and being branded as a symbolic murderer of citizenship at the time of liberation has caused years of anxiety, stress, and shame.
Aziz, who appeared with a lawyer in a New York City court on November 18th, lived to see his name revealed, but Islam did not.
“There are civil rights proceedings that can be filed against the city,” says Zoltek-Jick. “But it is the taxpayers who bear the unreasonable costs of the previous generation.”
Zoltek-Jick states that there are a number of state and federal prosecutors offices that have created internal investigation units to “re-examine the behavior of previous generation prosecutors.”
“And they’re doing it with an unfair look to explore racial prejudice and the prosecution’s animus,” she says. “The return of DA’s office to re-examine the case is an important step happening across the country.”
Zoltek-Jick says that a combination of political forces and pressures, often including “pressure to convict”, characterizes many of these tort cases. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the New York Police Department have hidden important evidence that would cast suspicion on the guilt of Aziz and Islam. These actions are now understood as part of the civil rights movement, a common agenda that sought to undermine the movement that then FBI Director J. Edgar Huber considered a threat to national interests.
In an exemption hearing, Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance said the move to overturn the pair’s conviction was based on “newly discovered evidence” and “failure to disclose evidence of justification.” rice field. For decades, legal experts and historians have questioned men’s guilt, including a statement from confessional murderer Mujahid Harim, who was convicted of killing Malcolm X. rice field. ..
“In a case that relied entirely on eyewitness testimony, all witnesses who testified in court died,” he said. “All physical evidence, including the shotgun used in the murder, is gone.”
Zoltek-Jick says that what happened in all three cases of Aziz and Islam, Broadwater, and Strickland is a tragedy of justice. But she adds: “It’s never too late to tell the truth.”
“”[Aziz and Islam’s] Exemption[s] It changes the story of history, “she says. “It is very important that the truth is told correctly.”
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https://phys.org/news/2021-12-justice-exonerated-decades-case-black.html What does justice look like to those who have been exonerated decades later?In the case of black compensation