Scientists have collected the virus from nearly 15,000-year-old ice samples taken from glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau. It turns out that dozens of species are unknown to science. This allows us to look back on the evolutionary history of the virus.
Glaciers are dust particles, trace amounts of gas, Microorganisms,and Plant material From various periods.These layers accumulate over time, allowing scientists to drill and study. Ice core To learn a huge amount of ancient climate, what happened in the atmosphere, and what kind of life existed at different points in history.
A new study, led by researchers at The Ohio State University, excavated ice cores from the Greya ice cap on the Tibetan Plateau, dating back 14,400 years. The team then analyzed the types of viruses contained in these cores and identified the genetic code of 33 viruses. Four of these were found to belong to a known type of bacteriophage, a virus that preys on bacteria, but at least 28 did not match the known type.
The team assumes that the virus probably comes from plants and soil, but it wasn’t necessarily stopped by the cold. In fact, about half of the viruses seem to be suitable for living on ice.
“These are viruses that would have thrived in extreme environments,” says research co-author Matthew Sullivan. “These viruses have genetic characteristics that help them infect cells in cold environments. These are surrealistic genetic characteristics about how the virus can survive in extreme conditions. “
Because modern microbial contamination is a serious problem for this type of research, researchers have developed new methods for sterilizing ice cores. They used a variety of techniques to remove a 0.5 cm (0.2 inch) layer of outer material. First scraped with a band saw, then washed with ethanol and finally with sterile water. You can then check the inner section of the core for contamination.
The team tested this sterilization process on a unique artificial ice core coated with bacteria, virus, and DNA. No trace of these simulated pollutants was detected in the internal ice core after they performed a three-step process.
Researchers can better study ancient microbes, better than scientists about their evolutionary history, how they dealt with changing climates in the past, and how well they will be in the future. It is said to be useful for understanding well. Sterilization methods can also help find traces of the viral sequence in samples taken on the Moon or Mars.
The study was published in the journal Microbiota..
Source: Ohio State University
https://newatlas.com/science/new-viruses-15000-year-old-glacier-ice/ Dozens of new viruses found on glacier ice 15,000 years ago